Under-Nutrition adversely affects growth, development and health status during childhood and adolescence, Influence their nutrition and health status throughout their lifespan. This may render them more susceptible to over-nutrition and non communicable disease risk in adult life
Major Nutritional Problems in the World
- Protein-energy malnutrition
- Micronutrient deficiency problems (Iron deficiency anemia, Vitamin A deficiency, Iodine deficiency disorders, Zinc deficiency, Folate deficiency)
- Nutrition-related chronic diseases
Intergenerational Cycle of Undernutrition: The cycle of poor nutrion perpetutes itself across generations - supported by scientific evidence
Characteristics of Children
- High morbidity of infectious and parasitic diseases
- High prevalence of malnutrition
- High incidence of injuries
- High mortality
- Growth and development
Nutritional status childern during the critical period is of paramount importance for later physical, mental & social Development.
Outcomes of inadequate diet
Poor growth, Poor cognition, Poor muscle development, Reduced work capacity, Poor social development, High rates of illness, Difficulty in school
Eggs are a nutritious source of protein, fat, vitamins A, D, E and B12, iron, folate and choline, Eggs have a high quality protein, Eggs are versatile and economical
Egg yolks are one of the richest dietary sources of the B-complex vitamin choline, which is associated with better neurological function and reduced inflammation
Egg yolks also contain two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, which protect against vision loss , they have a big dose of sulfur:
Eggs are also high in sulfur, an essential nutrient that helps with everything from vitamin B absorption to liver function. But sulfur is also necessary for the production of collagen and keratin, which help create and maintain shiny hair, strong nails and glowing skin.
Eggs Choline (a vitamin-like substance that is plentiful in eggs, but also found in nuts) is vital for the creation of memory stem cells, formed deep within our brains. The more cells we have, the better our memories. It's a nutrient experts have long recognized as vital for pregnant and lactating women, because so much brain development occurs in infants.
But the big news, according to research from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, is that extra choline also seems to help adolescent rodents remember better indicating that a choline-rich diet may aid new memory cell production throughout childhood.
Procura Kid ‘the tasty gift of recovery’
|21 Vitamins and Minerals
“Nutrition requirements increases tremendously during pregnancy and lactation as the expectant or nursing mother not only has to nourish herself but also growing fetus and the infant who is being breast fed”.
Countrywide surveys conducted by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) show that Indian diets are qualitatively adequate in proteins but deficient in some micronutrients. The study also indicated that the intake of iron, folate, vitamin B6 and calcium is less than 50% RDA. The intake of DHA is far below the WHO recommendations.
Maternal diet can have a significant effect on pregnancy outcome. Severe overall undernutrition resulted in an increased risk for infertility, intrauterine growth retardation and abortion. The consumption by women of a poor diet (defined as a diet low in protein, calcium, fruits and vegetables) was correlated with a high incidence of miscarriages, stillbirths and early neonatal mortality compared with the consumption of a good diet.
NNMB* Shows that Indian Diet does not Provide all the Required Nutrients in the Required Quantity
Several micronutrient deficiencies have been postulated to result in human congenital disorders, thus it is unlikely that the difference between good and poor diets with respect to pregnancy outcome can be attributed to a single nutrient.
Improper diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding may lead to,
- Anemia: Iron deficiency anemia is very common nutritional disorder among pregnant woman.
- Preeclampsia: As a result of improper diet many pregnant women face up the challenge of dealing with high blood pressure during pregnancy whose blood pressure was previously normal.
- Preterm birth: Common in pregnant woman who do not take care of their diet during the gestation period.
- Low birth weight: Low birth weight primarily stems from the mother’s poor health and nutrition. Low birth weight (less than 2,500 g) carries a range of grave health risks for children.
- Improper diet also results in increased morbidity and mortality and also impairs physical and mental development in babies.
- Deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium, iron, folic acid, and iodine have been associated with miscarriages, congenital anomalies, pregnancy-induced hypertension, premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption, premature deliveries, still births and a high incidence of low birth weight babies.
A good and nutritious well-planned balanced diet improves pregnancy outcomes
Lactating women are more likely to suffer from nutrient deficiencies than from a shortage of dietary energy or protein. Inadequate intake of nutrients by the mother can affect both the mother and her breast-fed baby; babies are seen to suffer more nutrient deficiencies than the mother. Reduced intake of these nutrients leads to below the normal concentrations of nutrients in the breast-milk, leading to subsequent effects like less physical and mental growth, poor bone development and failure to thrive on the nursing infant. Inadequate micronutrient intake by the mother can lead to the depletion of these important nutrients from the mother’s body stores which can lead to problems like osteoporosis (weakening of the bone), anemia, depression and even cancer in later years.
On the mother
In malnourished breast feeding mothers, chronic reductions in dietary intake of some nutrients may lead to below normal concentrations of micronutrients in the milk and/or depletion of maternal stores of key nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, folic acid, vitamin A and possibly proteins. Such reductions may have adverse physical effects and increase the mother’s risk to develop degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis. Other adverse health outcomes due to nutrient deficiencies include beriberi, neurological disturbances, anemia, etc. The depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy and a lack of recovery during postpartum period may increase a woman’s risk of depression. Chronic nutrient deficiencies may also place mothers at an increased risk for development of cancer and degenerative diseases later in life.
On the child
Some nutrients that are crucial for the health and well being of a newborn baby are maintained at the expense of the mother’s health. For others, the infants have been observed to suffer from a more severe dietary deficiency state than the mother. As the maternal deficiency of specific nutrients affects their concentration in the breast milk, it may lead to adverse nutritional consequences in her suckling infant. In thiamin deficiency, mothers with beriberi produce breast milk low in the vitamin, which results in infantile beriberi within 3–4 weeks of birth, whereas the deficiency of maternal B6 and B12 can lead to severe neurodevelopmental disturbances, irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive in the infant. Low maternal intake of calcium and vitamin D can also lead to skeletal deformities in the infant due to rickets. It has been observed that even a marginal DHA deficiency can have long-term effects on visual development during pre-school period.